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Hydraulics

Hydraulics is the science that deals with the laws governing water or other liquids in motion and their applications in engineering; practical or applied
hydrodynamics.

The basic idea behind any hydraulic system is very simple: Force that is applied at one point is transmitted to another point using an incompressible fluid. The fluid is almost always an oil of some sort. The force is almost always multiplied in the process.

Air in the System
It is important that a hydraulic system contains no air bubbles. You may have heard about the need to "bleed the air out of the brake lines" of you car. If there is an air bubble in the system, then the force applied to the first piston gets used compressing the air in the bubble rather than moving the second piston, which has a big effect on the efficiency of the system.

The brakes in your car are a good example of a basic piston-driven hydraulic system. When you depress the brake pedal in your car, it is pushing on the piston in the brake's master cylinder. Four slave pistons, one at each wheel, actuate to press the brake pads against the brake rotor to stop the car. (Actually, in almost all cars on the road today two master cylinders are driving two slave cylinders each. That way if one of the master cylinders has a problem or springs a leak, you can still stop the car.)

In most other hydraulic systems, hydraulic cylinders and pistons are connected through valves to a pump supplying high-pressure oil.


Pascal's Law and Hydraulic Brake System


Basic Hydraulics




Principle of hydraulic lift


 
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